The degree to which a firm has decided to directly produce multiple value-adding stages, from raw material to the sale of the product to the ultimate consumer. The more steps in the sequence, the greater the vertical integration. A manufacturer that decides to begin producing parts, components, and materials that it normally purchases is said to be backward integrated. Likewise, a manufacturer that decides to take over distribution and perhaps sale to the ultimate consumer is said to be forward integrated.
Logistics Costs Explained
Read More »
In this article, we look at warehousing, fulfillment and overall logistics costs when selling products via eCommerce and B2B sales. Plus, we review the average